Catch the key of food packaging problem most hotly

2022-08-09
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Grasp the key of food packaging problems

I. Basic overview

in recent years, with the upgrading of health food, the development of packaging materials supporting it has been promoted

for glass packaging materials, food grade packaging is gradually promoting the use of borosilicate glass, the main component of which, in addition to silicon dioxide, contains 8% - 13% boron. This kind of material is mainly characterized by good chemical stability, few dissolved substances, transparency, aroma retention and other aspects. From the perspective of safety, the control of arsenic dissolution and heavy metals should be strengthened for such products

for rubber used in food packaging, the state has clear hygienic standards for rubber. Conventional testing items mainly include heavy metals, potassium permanganate consumption, soluble organic matter, evaporation residue. Judging from the current test results, the quality is controllable

from the general trend, the requirements of health food for plastic packaging are more rational, developing from appearance to functionality, that is, paying more attention to how to protect the internal quality of products, such as transparency, oxidation resistance and barrier performance. At the same time, food packaging is required to ensure safety

at present, the annual output value of the health food packaging industry is about 15 billion yuan, which can meet 80% of the needs of domestic production enterprises, but the follow-up speed of materials matching the emerging new dosage forms is too slow to meet the requirements of new product development. Domestic health food packaging has not reached the international level in the 1990s. The contribution rate of packaging to health food is low. In developed countries, health food packaging accounts for 30% of its value, while China accounts for only 10%

Second, the use of new materials

with people's attention to health and the maturity of production technology, high-quality food packaging materials will be popularized and promoted

1. Environmental conditioning packaging

includes packaging sealed with desiccant (oxygen getter), air replacement packaging, etc. These packages can better protect food, extend shelf life, and regulate the environment. The desiccants and oxygen absorbents used in packaging are generally silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, and fiber desiccants according to the physical properties of health food. These substances will not react with food to make it invalid or modified

commonly used environmental conditioning packaging desiccants are:

(1) silica gel: the greater the humidity of silica gel, the stronger the moisture absorption capacity, and the higher the temperature, the weaker the moisture absorption capacity. With cobalt chloride being classified as a class II carcinogen by the European Union in 1998, blue gum has been banned from production in Europe and the United States and phased out. A new type of safe color changing silica gel has emerged. It has the properties of blue glue, non-toxic, reusable, and deep drying

(2) sieve: molecular sieve is a synthetic polyhydrate aluminosilicate with cubic lattice, which has strong moisture absorption and can be deeply dried. When it is low temperature and high humidity, the moisture absorption capacity is stronger than that of silica gel and alumina

(3) fiber desiccant: fiber desiccant based on plant fibers is a recently developed dry product that does not pollute the environment and is easy to recycle. It soaks the plant fiber into the drying stock solution (including sodium salt and calcium salt), and after the process treatment, it can be made into a sheet form. It uses thousands of absorption gaps on the surface to absorb moisture, and overcomes the defects of drug volume increase caused by too large desiccant. It has the characteristics of convenient carrying and low cost. In addition The integrated moisture-proof bottle cap that combines desiccant and plastic bottle cap has gradually come into people's attention

2. Polylactic acid (PLA)

is a new type of phenol like material produced from organic acid lactic acid. It has the advantages over polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and other materials. It is defined by the industry as the most promising new packaging material in the new century, and has a broad application prospect

3. Antibacterial packaging

the problem of food corruption caused by microorganisms makes antibacterial packaging a hot topic. Therefore, Japan has successfully developed a series of antibacterial packaging materials by adding a new inorganic antibacterial agent to the packaging materials, which has antibacterial effect on a variety of pathogenic bacteria. The main characteristics of the packaging material are as follows: the antibacterial effect lasts for a long time; Because the antibacterial agent is vapor phase, it has no adverse effect on the contents of the package; Good stability

4. Paper based composite packaging

this is a kind of composite flexible packaging, mainly including film type, bag lining type, embedded type, liquid type, etc. The main problem of paper-based composite packaging is to solve the problem of seepage prevention, which is due to the very small oil molecules. Japan has developed a kind of composite carton containing edible oil, which is very successful. The structure of composite paper is PE/paper/PE/Al/PET/PE, which is made of paper as the base material through aluminum-plastic 6-layer composite

III. problems in food packaging

although China's food packaging industry is developing at a high speed, there are problems of low-level repeated construction, overcapacity and disorderly competition in electricity. Due to the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises, low industrial concentration, weak competitiveness and low product technology content

1. Solvent residue

the solvent residue of composite packaging generally comes from ink, solvent and production process. The commonly used solvents are toluene, butanone, ethyl acetate, etc

gb9683 "Hygienic standard for composite food packaging bags" controls trace harmful substances in adhesives, such as diaminotoluene, but does not require solvent residues; Gb9685 "Hygienic standard for the use of additives for food containers and packaging materials" stipulates 17 categories of additives, solvents, adhesives and other 58 kinds of tools (3) Jinan gold assay operation methods: the name and maximum amount of substances in the computer interface operator; Gb10004 "cooking resistant composite film and bag" stipulates that the total amount of solvent residue is ≤ 10mg/m2; G then to start the experiment, b10005 "biaxially oriented polypropylene/low density polyethylene composite film and bag" stipulates that the total amount of solvent residue is ≤ 10mg/m2, including benzene residue ≤ 3mg/m2

the United States and the European Union have clearly stipulated the types of adhesives and inks used in food or drug packaging in relevant laws, and stipulated the scope of restrictions on their use. In fact, for the sake of environmental protection, the international community generally stipulates the limit of solvent residue on commodity packaging, and indicates the residue of a certain solvent

in addition, BS 6455-1984 monitoring method of solvent residual components in flexible packaging materials and f1884-98 testing method of residual solvent detection in packaging materials stipulate specific methods for the determination of solvent residues

generally speaking, China's food packaging standards can no longer fully adapt to the current new problems, and the revision of food packaging standards is urgent

2. Use of food preservative film

food preservative film is divided into polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) and other types according to material. PVC is widely used in the outer packaging of food and vegetables. Its potential harm to human body mainly comes from two aspects. First, the residue of vinyl chloride monomer in products, such as people exposed to excessive vinyl chloride, will have an impact on human health; Second, processing PVC itself is non-toxic. What is toxic is vinyl chloride monomer and additives

the national standards related to PVC fresh-keeping film include hygienic standard for polyvinyl chloride resin for food containers and packaging materials (gb4803-94); Hygienic standard for polyvinyl chloride molded products for food packaging (gb9681-88) and hygienic standard for the use of additives for food container packaging materials (g139685-2003)

the national toxicity research center (NTP) of the United States suggests adding DEHA testing items to PVC fresh-keeping films, and reasonably classifying and using PVC fresh-keeping films

3. Polyester is widely used in food packaging because of its high mechanical strength, good chemical resistance and good barrier performance. Recently, China has developed new uses of polyester materials to fill alcohol products with its pasteurization resistance. Due to the migration of a certain amount of terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol from polyester in alcohol solution, the United States Pharmacopoeia has relevant items under control, so it should be cautious to use polyester to contain alcohol products. In addition, the EU regulation 94/62/EC controls the metal elements of lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent chromium in these products

IV. foreign food packaging regulations

1 The US regulatory system

fda regulates imported food, drugs and food packaging. FDA issued the document "key points for the application of recycled plastics in food packaging - Chemical concerns", and enterprises exporting goods to the United States should pay special attention to the Federal Code of the United States. Among them, TITLE 16 - commercialpractices is the focus of research. Food, drugs and cosmetics are stipulated in Volume 21, and the specific export shall also meet the requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, the model legislation officially released by the United States for early warning should also be paid attention to. In October, 2004, the United States officially announced the revised publicity act "toxins in packaging"

regulations on associated packaging in Volume 21 of the United States Code of federal regulations "food, drugs and cosmetics":/p>

-- food must be packaged in conditions that meet health requirements

-- main production specifications of food packaging materials: 0.23 ⑴ 0mm*800 ⑴ 250mm must be in accordance with good management practices (GMP)

-- the packaging materials and their components in contact with food must meet the requirements

for food contact materials, FDA has stipulated the low limit for the transfer of packaging materials to food for the first time through the "regulation threshold". If the transfer amount does not exceed 0.5pph (i.e. 1.5 micrograms/person/day) in the diet, there is no need to apply for food additives. The food contact notification approval process makes packaging manufacturers more concerned about how to obtain the approval of other food additives

2. European regulatory system

the current European regulations on packaging materials in direct contact with food are: 89/109/EEC, 90/128/EEC, 82/711/EEC and 85/572/EEC, in which 90/128/EEC stipulates that the total mobility limit of substances in plastic packaging materials shall not exceed 60mg/kg food or 10mg/DM2. Regulation 94/62/EC stipulates heavy metals

the use classification of food packaging in the European Union: it is divided into packaging water-soluble food, acidic food, alcohol food, oily food. Its performance can be conditioned in a large range, water-soluble acidic food, acidic alcohol food, oil-water mixed food, oily acid food, alcohol water-soluble food, oily, alcohol, acidic mixed food and other 10 categories of products

classify the use conditions of food packaging according to the worst foreseeable conditions. There are mainly two aspects: on the one hand, according to the contact time between packaging and food, it is divided into seven grades: t ≤ 5min, 5min ≤ T <0.5h, 0.5h 24h. On the other hand, according to the contact temperature between packaging and food, it is divided into 9 grades: t ≤ 5 ℃, 5 ℃ 150 ℃

the indicators of products are different according to the specific use of products. Taking packaged livestock meat as an example, the nonvolatile index varies according to the oiliness of the packaged livestock meat

3. Japanese regulatory system

Japanese food packaging does not need market access permission, and the standards belong to the scope of voluntary implementation. Packaging manufacturers, sellers and importers must be recognized by the Ministry of health and welfare of Japan and authorized by the food safety law

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